Top 10 Methods of Contraception – Part 1



What are Oral Contraceptives or Birth Control Pills?

Oral contraceptive, known as “The Pill”, contains two synthetic female hormones (estrogen and progesterone) which prevent pregnancy by inhibiting the monthly release of the “egg” from the ovaries. These are the same female hormones you normally produce. Oral contraceptives are almost 100% effective when taken correctly. To be absolutely safe, you should use a second form of contraception the first seven days of the first cycle.

Birth control pills do not completely protect a woman from getting sexually transmitted diseases.

How are they available?

  • Combination pill: Here the pills contain both the female hormones in various combinations.
  • Mini pill: These contain only progesterone.

Side Effects

Occasionally may experience side effects, which are usually temporary and may disappear in the first three to four cycles. We encourage you to remain on the pill for at least three cycles so that we can evaluate how you are adjusting. If symptoms persist longer than three months, consult your medical practitioner who may be able to solve the problem by changing the type of pill you are taking.

  • Some women experience slight nausea, which may be relieved by taking the pill along with a snack just before going to sleep or with a meal.
  • Breakthrough bleeding (bleeding in between the menses): If this bleeding is heavier than light flow or lasts more than a few days, you should contact your practitioner.
  • Your breasts may enlarge or become somewhat tender.
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oral contraceptive pills


  • If you have special health problems, such as fibrous growths of the uterus, heart or kidney disease, depression, diabetes, thyroid disease, migraine headaches, or epilepsy, you should inform your practitioner of these or any other problems.
  • If you have a history of blood clots anywhere in your body, cancer of the breast or uterus, or liver disease, you may not be able to use the pill.


Most women taking oral contraceptive have few or no problems. But do call your practitioner if you notice any of the following symptoms:

A- abdominal pain (severe)
C –
 chest pain (severe), shortness of breath, or coughing up blood
H- headaches (severe)
 eye problems like blurred vision, flashing lights
 -severe leg pain (calf or thigh)


These include a reduced incidence of benign ovarian cysts, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, and most importantly, endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer.

  • Most successful means of contraception if used properly, the failure rate is less than 1%.
  • It is of great social advantage for working and educated women as withdrawal bleeding is predictable. One can postpone the same safely by taking more pills continually for even one month or so.
  • Cures painful menses and the mid cycle ovulation pain.
  • Oral contraception decreases the amount of bleeding and can be used in women having heavy and prolonged regular menses.
  • Oral contraception protects against ovarian and endometrial cancer. The effect lasts for many years. Benign breast diseases, functional ovarian cyst, fibroid of the uterus are reduced in pill users.
  • Oral contraception protects against ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory diseases, anemia and malnutrition, endometriosis, hirsutism, acne and oily skin.


This is also known as Calendar Method. Based on Orgino-Knaus theory that ovulation, release of mature female egg, takes place about 14 + 2 days before the next menstrual period, the calendar method attempts to predict ovulation using a woman’s menstrual history.


In this, the couple proceeds with intercourse in the usual way until the moment of ejaculation, when the male withdraws his organ and discharges outside the vagina or the external genitalia.


  • Needs great motivation and self-control in the male partner.
  • The female partner may develop sexual neurosis as female satisfaction / orgasm may not be achieved.
  • The pre ejaculate (fluid that is secreted for lubrication, in males,) may contain few sperms which may lead to unwanted pregnancy.
  • One or both partners may not feel completely satisfied by the sexual experience.

Failure rate
5 to 25% may conceive in spite of using this method.

Premature ejaculation.

Will continue in part – 2


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